“Biology is the study of complicated things that give the appearance of having been designed for a purpose.” Richard Dawkins, The Blind Watchmaker, p. 1
“I am conscious that I am in a utter hopeless muddle. I cannot think that the world, as we see it, is the result of chance, and yet I cannot look at each separate thing as the result of Design.” Charles Darwin, 1860 letter to Asa Gray, a defender of intelligent design
Editor’s Comment: The following materials on the social insect (the bee) is found on pages 191f in Fred John Meldau’s Why We Believe in Creation Not In Evolution. Let every reader decide if the bee has the appearance of having been designed for a purpose; of if the bee has been designed by a Designer for a purpose. Keep in mind that without the bee the human population would die of starvation.
BEES, THE “MASTERPIECES OF CREATION”
When viewed from either the standpoint of their phys ical makeup or their social instincts, bees are a masterly creation!
A colony of bees, called a swarm, may number from 10,000 to 60,000 or more individual bees. Bees have a most amazing “economy” in their hives. The work is divided among different groups — and each group instinctively knows what it must do.
There are three kinds of bees in each colony. The queen, the drones (males) and the workers (undeveloped females). T he queen does not rule the colony: her function is to lay the eggs from which the new bees develop. And that is quite a job, since from 1,000 to 1,500 bees emerge daily, in the summer season, to replace the deaths and enlarge the colony.
One section of the hive is set apart for the nursery and it is here that the queen in her daily rounds lays the tiny eggs in specially prepared cells . T he eggs hatch in three days into grubs (small worm-like creatures also called maggots or larvae). T hey are fed in the cell until they grow to the point where they fill the cell.
They are then sealed in; they pupate, and soon a new bee emerges. We will have more to say about this interesting cycle later.
The worker bees literally “work themselves to death.” In a colony of 50,000 bees there are about 30,000 workers. These bees average 10 trips a day in the summer and visit a total of 300,000 flowers. Their wings fray out from much flying — and they usually die in about two months . Those that emer ge in the fall live longer, as a rule.
The Intricate Anatomy of Bees, Showing”Design” for a Purpose
The whole anatomy of bees is so intricate, involved and wonder ful, naturalists and biologis ts could wr ite volumes on the subject. Our present purpose is to call attention to a few of the “specialized” organs that grace the body of a bee — organs and features that are obviously THERE FOR A PURPOSE, so constructed as to reveal special creative design.
The honeybee has sharp tips on its claws, to enable it to walk along on any r ough s ur face; between its claws it has a little pad or cus hion called the pulvillus that enables it to walk on s mooth, slippery surfaces, such as glass.
ITS POLLEN-COLLECTING LEGS
Not only does a bee serve a most needed function in cross- pollination, but als o the pollen it gather s is par t of its food. I ts body and legs are clearly designed for that purpose. Pollen clings to the hairs on its legs and body, and is transferred to pollen “baskets” on its hindlegs. These”baskets” aremadeby apeculiar arrangement of hairs surrounding a depression on the outer surface of the legs.
On the middle pair of legs at the knee is a short, projecting spur, used to pack pollen in the pollen baskets. On the inner part of the hind leg are a series of side combs used to scrape together the pollen that has stuck to the hairy body of the bee; with these side combs the bee then transfers the pollen to its pollen baskets. She then packs down the pollen in the baskets with the spurs on her middle legs. Long hairs on the front pair of legs remove pollen from the ar ea of the bee’s mouth and head. T he middle pair of legs ar e used to scrape the pollen off the thorax and front legs; the stiff
hairs of the third set (hind) legs comb the abdomen and also the accumulated pollen on the s econd pair of legs — and then s he deftly puts the accumulation into the pollen baskets on the hinds legs!
The whole procedure is so efficient and practical, one can not help but conclude that Someone must have planned it that way! Finally — when the bee reaches the hive, it uses a spur at the tip of each front leg to push the pollen out of the pollen baskets and into the cells of the comb of the hive. *
* T her e is a mor e detailed and technical des cr iption of the mar velous legs of the honeybee in the s ection to come on ” Animals Without Backbones.”
“The walking legs of the honey bee are modified for collecting food. Each is highly specialized and quite different from the others, so that, TOGETHER, they constitute a complete set of tools FOR COLLECTING AND MANIPULATiNG THE POLLEN upon which the bees feed.” (Animals Without Backbones”).
The two rodlike projections that extend in front of the bee move constantly. they are not only “feelers” but also “smellers” — the “nose” of the bee. On the tops of these antennae are thousands of tiny “sense plates!”
The Cr eator has pr ovided bees with an ingenius means to keep these sensitive sense plates at the ends of their delicate antennae clean and functioning. When the bee ins er ts her head into nectar-holding flowers, the antennae may become coated and clogged with bee glue or other for eign s ubs tances . On the bee’s
fr ont legs is a moveable piece of tough tis s ue, which can be r ais ed by the bee, thus cr eating a s mall opening. On the outer edges of this opening are stiff, short hairs that act like cleansing teeth. T o clean her r ight antenna, the bee bends the antenna towar d the left, opens the “gate,” then draws her antenna back and forth between the stiff hairs until all dirt and dust are removed! She does the same thing with her other antenna until both are clean and functioning again! Clever, isn’t it? Can anyone believe that such a practical, ingenius s etup came to pass by chance mutations?
The bee has two pairs of amazingly efficient powerful wings that give convincing evidence of special “design.” The bee has a rather bulky body and needs large wings to fly efficiently. But large wings would, on the other hand, hinder the bee’s entering the narrow six-sided cell in the hive. So the Great Designer solved this problem in ” engineer ing” in this manner : the larger front wing on its rear edge a ridge to which hooks on the back wing are fastened when flying. This device conver ts the four wings into T WO LARGE WINGS FOR FLIGHT. When not in flight, the wings are released and they overlap, greatly reducing their size! The wings, moreover , are so made that in flight they move in a figur e eight design, which makes it possible for the bee to go in any direction — up, down, side to side, backwards and forwards, or remain motionless while hovering before a flower — much like a hummingbird. T his s ys tem of wing structure is so complicated and yet s o per fectly adapted to its intended pur pos e that one can not but mar vel at the Genius who designed it!
Why does a Bee have Compound Eyes?
Between their two large compound eyes, having many facets, bees (like many other insects) have three tiny eyes. T aken together (the compound eyes and the small eyes) the bee must have wonderful vision. T here seems, however, to be a special
pur pos e for the bee’s compound eyes . T he bee is lar gely guided by what is called “the polarity of sunlight.”
T he complex eyes of bees serve as a most complex compass, built into its head. T hes e compound, faceted eyes ar e s ens itive to the degree of ‘the polarity of sunlight.’ It should be explained that the waves of light streaming from the sun in all directions travel directly outward, in a straight line, in one direction. Now as the earth revolves, an animal (including insects) on its surface views this direction of the light fr om a cons tantly changing angle as the sun rises and sets. T he bee, through its intricate, compound eyes, by simply glancing at any part of the sky in daylight, can interpret this angle immediately, and thus deter mine the pos ition of the s un, the time of day, and its own pos ition r elative to its hive or the place where its food is! And this makes possible its long flights from its hive and its knowledge of its way home. Not only so, it makes possible the intricate “dance of the bees” (which we discuss later in this chapter) by means of which bees communicate to other bees in the hive vital infor mation about their newly dis covered food supply.
Surely the eyes of the bee, and the use it makes of its eyes, demands a Creative intelligence of a high or der — to put such wonders in so small an insect!
THE BEE’S STINGER AND STING
A worker bee has a sting at the tail end of her abdomen. T he sting has little barbs at its point which turn backward and make the sting stick in the victim’s skin so firmly that the bee cannot pull it out. She must literally tear herself away — and leave part of her internal organs attached too the sting. Soon after that she dies. Who or what made a terrible “mistake” like that! Certainly evolution, seeking ever for “the survival of the fittest,” would not do that. And what bee would desire, or help evolve a s ting that meant her own destruction? T his is a perfect argument for Creation, and a perfect argument against evolution (“natural selection” and “survival of the fittest”). — for here is a case where the price of a specialized organ is DEATH, not survival, growth, development or enlargement. But GOD made it so — and it remains so to this day.
The efficiency of the sting is assured by this special arrangement: attached mus cles pump the pois on into the wound even after the bee has flown away. Just a ” chance arrangement” of blind evolution? No; it was planned that way.
BEES AS CHEMICAL FACTORIES
Bees have a special “honey stomach” separate from their own food-digesting stomach. T he bee carries the nectar in this special honey s tomach; ther e the s weet, natur al fluid is tr ans for med into honey! Were “survival of the fittest” the law of life, bees would not be inter es ted in developing a s econd s tomach: for they could r eadily adapt to live on nectar. But GOD planned it that way for “colony” needs and colony s ur vival — and als o for the needs of man.
T he delicious honey that the bee make out of nectar contains levulose, dextrose, other sugars, dextrines, gums, vitamins, proteins, mineral salts (calcium, iron, copper, zinc), iodine, several enzymes, and many other vital and nutritional substances. T he little honeybee is the only creature on earth that makes honey in quantities large enough to benefit man significantly.
Bees make a bee glue — “propolis”— from the sticky covering on cer tain buds . I f a mous e chances to get into their hive, they will s ting him to death, and then dis pos e of the body by coating it fr om head to tail with “propolis,” bee glue. This forms an airtight mausoleum for the decaying mouse: so there is no odor nor contamination of their living quar ter s ! I t was not in vain that God enabled bees to make this glue or varnish.
Bees make wax out of honey in four little pockets
(manufacturing centers) on their abdomens. I n order to start the secretion of wax special heat is needed; so the bees gather together in a large pendant mass, their wings buzzing rapidly all the while. Presently, “a strange sweat, white as snow. . . .begins to break out over the swarm.” T hese are wax scales that are removed by the bees with a pair of pincers found at one of their knee joints. T hese s cales ar e then chewed into a s oft pas te which can be r eadily molded into the delicate wax film of the cells. Even skilled chemists cannot make bees’ wax as good as that made by bees!
“Bees’ wax is unlikeanythingelse. It contains afatty acid called cerin, minute quantities of alcohol, myricin, hydro-carbons etc. It has a higher melting point (1400) than other waxes.”
They also make another grade of wax. When the larva has grown in its cell to fill the space, worker bees seal over the cell with a special type of porous wax so that the larva can breathe.
Bees make a magic “royal jelly” that they can feed to their grubs for their first 48 hours after hatching from eggs. This “royal jelly” is manufactured in the ductless glands of the nurse bees . When queens are desired, the nurse bees feed the grubs five days on royal jelly, instead of only two. If queens are not desired, at the end of forty-eight hours the grubs are taken off the royal jelly diet and fed a mixture of honey and pollen dust — mixed in EXACT proportions! This is another instance of surprising knowledge and accur acy. This change in food br ings about the birth of a neutral (female) bee — the workers with which we are familiar. How the prolonged feeding of the gr ub on royal jelly brings about the change from a normal neutral worker bee to a queen bee is not know.
After the grub is sealed in its wax cell, the larva spins a silk cocoon; but the lar va’s ” s ilk factor y” is pr es ently dis car ded when the larva is transformed into its final “bee” form. How is it that the ability to make silk is present with the bee in the larvel form just when needed, and no longer? God makes no mistakes.
Needles s to s ay, though we have touched on s ome of the high spots, our resume of the bee as a “chemical factory” is superficial. Were one to go into ALL of the chemical abilities of the bee, it would be a mos t as tonis hing pr es entation of the manufactur e of pr oteins , enzymes, digestive juices, various and sundry types of cells, and a thous and and one molecular combinations that would s tar tle us into rapturous astonishment.
BEES’ WORK OF POLLINATING FLOWERS
Bees pollinate over fifty flowers and agricultural crops while collecting nectar . I n this way they ar e ” fifty times mor e valuable to society than through the honey they produce.” Without their pollination orchards would produce little or no fruit., and many crops could not be gr own. No practical substitute for this pollination has been found. *
* T he annual yield of insect-pollinated plants is $41⁄2 billion. Honey bees are responsible for more than 80% of this. (Animal Life and Lore,” page 288).
When the bee goes into the flower after nectar, it innocently collects the golden pollen as it rubs its body against the precious powder when it enters the flower. When the bee goes to another flower , s ome of the pollen is r ubbed off on the s econd flower , and that flower is fertilized, with the bee as the unwitting agent. T hen the surplus pollen is carried back to the hive by the bee in its “pollen baskets”.
As a pollinator , the bee is ver y efficient, due to its habit of vis iting only one plant s pecies at cer tain times of the day and of certain seasons.
For its own sake the bee might as well be promiscuous in visiting flowers. But for the sake of pollinating flowers and for the future of the colony — done unconsciously by the bee — it is necessary that bees go to the same species of flowers for a period of time befor e s witching to other flower s . T he pollen of one genus of flower will not fertilize another genus.
A little thought will convince one that bees and the flowers they pollinate MUST have been created at about the same time, for ” the flower s need the bees for pollination and the bees need the flowers for food — for their very survival.” Here we see a wonderful partnership, the work of an Infinite Creator.
BEES AND HEREDITY
A queen is the mother of all the 10,000 to 100,000 bees in the hive. Fertilized during a nuptial flight by a male bee four or five days after her emer gence fr om her cell as a queen bee, s he may lay as many as 2,000 eggs a day during the nectar gathering season, and keep that up for two or three years! All from one mating! After the male’s sperm is deposited in her body, the sperm sac is torn from him, causing his death. Then she returns to the hive and depos its one egg to a cell, s o the maggots ar e hatched in cells .
The baby bee, which hatches out of the egg in about three days, certainly does NOT resemble its mother. I t is a fat white grub with neither wings nor legs and almos t no head. Helples s , it lies waiting in its cell for nurse bees to feed it. So hungry are these youngs ter s that each one needs over a thous and meals a day. T he greedy little creatures grow so fast that in six days each fills its cell tightly and is ready to take the next step in its life, the step that is called pupating. T he nur s es build a wax cover over the cell and the larva spins a silk cocoon inside. Within the larval skin wonderful
changes take place. Legs and wings push out and the body changes shape to make three distinct parts — head, thorax, and abdomen.
T he skin hardens and turns dark. After twelve days the adult worker is ready to cast off her larval skin and chew her way out of her cell.”
The tr ans for mation of gr ub into adult bee, dur ing the pupating process, is aMYSTERY AND AMIRACLE far beyondhuman comprehension. I t is impossible to explain it by natural causes. It is a well known phenomenon that can be explained only by admitting a s uper natur al Cr eator .
When the queen desires a worker bee, her pressure on the sperm-carrying sac in her body forces a sperm into the egg — and a female bee is conceived. I f a dr one or male is des ir ed, s he does NOT press on the sperm sac; the drone is thus an example of ” parthenogenesis , * or virgin birth: for the dr one has a mother and grandparents, but NOFATHER. This complicatedmanner of procreation defies explanation; save on the basis of Divine Creation. And honeybees have continued producing queens, workers and drones since ancient times — and honeybees are still honeybees!
* Rose aphids also give birth by parthenogenesis to live young. (See the June, 1961, “National Geographic.”) Other examples include some moths, some marine worms, some plants and some birds.
Without serving an apprenticeship, twenty-four hours after emergence from her cell and cocoon, the young bee begins her duties as a nur s e bee, and s he per for ms her duties without instruction, confusion or lack of skill — the perfect example of both individual and “community” instinct. She is able to make royal jelly and feed her sisters who are just coming into adult life. The entire process, from the nuptial flight, to the laying of so many eggs for so long a time, thr ough the s tages of lar va, pupa and adult bee, is marvelous — as wonderful as the metamorphosis of a caterpillar
into a beautiful butter fly. I t can not be accounted for by any theor y of evolution.
THE “LEAF-CUTTER” BEES
There are many kinds of bees. One of the most interesting is the so-called “Leaf-cutter” bee. There is an essay by J. Henri Fabre, noted entomologist, in the book, “Green Treasury” (pages 463; ff.) that gives this incredible information:
If onehas acookingpot that has lost its lid, noonewill attempt to go to the store and buy a lid to fit it without taking an exact measure of the top of the pot. T his homely illustration will help us appreciate this amazing feat of the Leaf-cutter bee.
“The Leaf-cutter has no mental picture of her ‘pot’ because she has never seen it; in fact, she has probably never seen any sort of a ‘pot’ built by her neighbors. She must, far away from home, cut out adiscfrom aleaf that will FIT thetopof her ‘jar’ when she gets it made. . . .In doing her job the leaf-cutter cuts a pile of discs (from leaves), finds a vacated chamber of the Capricorn from which the nymph has departed, and in this she builds her cells. Using various sizes cut from various types of leaves she constructs cells. (Mr. Fabre counted one cell that was made of 714 pieces of leaves). She barricades the opening into the chamber by 350 more pieces of leaves — making a total of 1064 pieces of leaves used so far in her cons tr uction j ob. One dauntles s bee and one alone has pr oduced the whole of this prodigious mass!”
The pieces stacked up to make lids were brought up before the cells wer e made. When completed, she places thes e r ound pieces of leaves — ‘lids ‘ — and they fit per fectly! ” When cutting these pieces for the ‘lids’ the bee was as sure of her scissors as a dressmaker guided by a pattern — AND YET SHE WAS CUTTING WITHOUT A MODEL, WITHOUT HAVING IN FRONT OF HER THE MOUTH(of the cell)TOBE CLOSED. Allleaf-cuttershavethesame talent for making lids for their ‘pots’ (cells)”.
Amazing, isn’t it. Such wisdom (without native intelligence to warrant it) must come from outside the bee, from the all-wise, Divine Cr eator . Who can contemplate the mar vels of bees and glorify the God who created them?
There are many other varieties of bees , all with distinctive characteristics. Some of these bees are the “Mining bee,” the “Cuckoo bee,” the “Giant cotton bee,” the “Sweat bee” that nests in the soil, the “Resin bee” that builds a nest of pebbles, sticking them together with resin, and the “Carpenter bee” of Africa that excavates a chamber in a pithy plant stem. I n this study our main interest is in the well known honeybee.
THE LANGUAGE OF BEES
Unbelievable as it sounds, honeybees actually have a “language” by which they “talk” to one another. To be sure, it is not a spoken language; however, they communicate with each other through special movements (called “dances”) and through scents. The famous Austrian scientists, Prof. Karl von Frische, whose work with bees has won him international fame, has demons tr ated that the honeybee indicates the pr es ence, dir ection and dis tance of pollen and nectar food to other member s of the hive, by executing strange little geometric dances.
A foraging bee comes home with a full load of pollen and nectar. She flies straight to the hive to share her harvest and to tell
the other bees where it is. When she reaches the hive she first of all gives other bees sips of nectar from her mouth; then she begins a little dance, called the round dance. She circles to the right, then to the left, and repeats this many times. She dances energetically forabouthalfaminute. Thismeans,”Thereisgoodfoodnearby.”
Other bees fly out to find the food. They know which kind of flower to look for by the scent of the nectar on the returning bee. When these bees get back to the hive with their loads of food, they also perform the same dance — provided there is still plenty of food left there. But when the food begins to run out, the returning bees dance les s and les s vigor ous ly and mor e br iefly, s o that fewer bees ar e s timulated to go to that place.
Now, bees s ometimes fly a mile or mor e on for aging tr ips . On long tr ips they us e a differ ent dance to announce food that is mor e than about 100 yards away. Through this dance, the bees can actually tell how far away the food is, and in what direction! “The dancer makes a short straight run forward, wagging her abdomen from side to side. T hen she turns left in a half circle, comes straight forward again with her tail-wagging motion, and circles to the right. She reveals the approximate distance to the food by the speed of the dancing — the fas ter the dance, the clos er the food. S he tells the dir ection of the food fr om the hive by the dir ection in which she makes her tail-wagging run. . . Most of the bees that pay attention to her message will come to exactly the spot she visited!”
Von Frische was so surprised at his discovery that he said, “No competent scientist ought to believe these things” — and yet his work has been verified and proven correct.
After Von Frische had learned “the language of the bees” he got an assistant to put some bee food at some distance from a hive — but Von Frische knew not where. When a bee found it, it was distinctly marked and then Von Frische watched carefully its dance when it r etur ned to the hive. He inter pr eted the mes s age the bee danced to its fellows at the hive; and then the natur alis t s aid to his assistant: “Thefoodyouplacedis320metersfromthehive”— and he also gave the direction. Checking showed that actually the food had been placed 332 meters from the hive, and in a direction he had es timated cor r ectly to within four degr ees !
Ronald Ribbands, University of Cambridge naturalist, has
dis cover ed that in addition to the ” dance” of the bees , their ” tas te and s mell” als o play an impor tant r ole in their methods of communicating with each other.
* For those who wish further information on this subject, we suggest the pamphlet, “THE SCENT LANGUAGE OF HONEYBEES,” by Ronald Ribbands. Published by The Smithsonian Institute (1956); (Publication Number 4243). See additional material on BEES in the ADDENDUM. These recently published facts are interesting! (TypistsNote. IwilltypethatoutwhenIgettoit)
THE PHENOMENON OF “COMMUNITY INSTINCT”
T he extraordinary abilities of bees is explained by all — creationists and evolutionists — as due to “instinct.” Bees truly
have amazing instincts. T ake for example their striking “architectural” abilities , which ar e far beyond what the bees ‘ limited intelligence warrants. Bees, as you know, construct their cells in double tiers — directly opposite each other — with one bottom serving for both cells. And since the cells are six-sided, each one of the six sides of each cell is also the side for another cell next to it — the best possible shape for the prevention of waste. T hese cells, called “one of the wonders of the natural world,” are made of thin plates of pliable wax. ALL OF THIS CONSTRUCTION WORK IS DONE IN TOTAL DARKNESS. When occasion requires, such as in odd corners, the cells are shaped square, triangular, or just to fit the space. The cells are tipped up slightly from the horizontal, to hold the honey better . They are always filled befor e being capped. T he cells ar e geometr ically accur ate, having ” a pr ecis ion that baffles description.” This amazing ability is for the benefit of the COLONY, and is called “colony instinct.”
Colony instinct is further seen in the realm of community protection. A s tr anger appr oaching a hive may notice bees cir cling around in a wide sweep. T hese are guards constantly on the lookout — seeking the protection of the colony, not especially their own — and if an enemy threatens the hive one of the guards notifies the colony and a lar ge detachment of ” s oldier s ” goes for th, r eady to attack if any attempt is made agains t the hive: and the courage of the bees knows no limit in defence of their home and their treasure.
T he bees’ plan to gener ate heat when needed. As is tr ue of all insects, honeybees are cold-blooded creatures: they cannot
r egulate their body temper atur e to a s pecific degr ee as people can. However , differ ing fr om mos t other ins ects , they can and do
pr oduce cons ider able heat by the activity of their bodies . I n a cold hive bees begin a mus cular activity that r es embles s hiver ing. T he colony for ms a compact clus ter . T he bees on the outs ide of this clus ter cr owd clos ely together and tur n their heads inwar d, thus forming a sort of shell. T he bees in the center of the cluster move rapidly, shake their bodies, and fan their wings in a lively manner.
I n this way they pr oduce a s ummer temper atur e ins ide that clus ter though the thermometer may show freezing on the outside of the hive. I n the s ummer when it is too hot ins ide the hive, bees air – condition the hive by gathering outside, beating their wings
vigor ous ly, s o blowing air into their hive. T hes e activities of cour s e give more evidence of “community instinct.”
J. Henri Fabre, the great French entomologist, says, “the bees’ instinct is fixed, unchanging, limited and non-progressive as the law of gravity.” (This leaves no room for evolution).
Fabre placed a piece of straw in some cells in a hive and the bees extracted these straws as often as placed there UNT I L T HE HONEY-GATHERINGPERIOD HAD PASSED andtheegg-laying
s eas on took its place. T hen the bees would ignor e the s tr aws in the cells. Even the queen would lay her eggs in cells with straws in them, as she did in the perfect cells having no straws. The workers would then s eal them up at the pr oper time, as they did the untouched cells . I f thes e bees had the faintes t degr ee of intelligence they would know no young bee could develop in the abnor mal condition with a s tr aw in the cell. On the pas s ing of the honey-gathering season, their ‘instinctive disposition’ had changed and they were helpless to recall the departed impulse. Fabre tells
of other tests, and the insects’ failure to adjust themselves, and so he concludes that bees are “hopelessly non-progressive, and non- intelligent.”
Fred Kohler, prominent evolutionist, writing on “The Societal Organism,” (page 59, “Evolution and Human Destiny”), concedes that the individuals in a beehive do NOT show evidence of the intelligence that the whole colony shows.
” I n its functioning the (bee) colony acts as if it ‘knew’ what it was doing. T his appears particularly remarkable when one
considers that the individual insect apparently does NOT possess by itself the degree of intelligence evident in the functioning of the colony. Des pite the appar ent lack of cons cious nes s of the individual insect, the colony shows a rational behaviour — a behaviour that is directed to assure the survival of the colony. HOW IS SUCH A SITUATIONPOSSIBLE?” (Caps,boldface,ours).
Well might Fred Kohler ask, “HOW IS SUCH A SITUATION POSSIBLE?” He further states, “As true instincts are neither taught nor transmitted by example from one generation to the next, they mus t, as ther e is no other pos s ibility, be par t of the genetic code determining the species.” He then suggests that instincts are subject to “mutations” just as much as physical characteristics. We would like to ask Dr. Kohler — HOW CAN AN INSTINCT NECESSARY FOR THE SURVIVAL OF THE COLONY COME ABOUT “GRADUALLY?”
I f the ” ins tinct” to build wax cells is only par tly ther e, the colony will not survive.
And how can he possibly explain a “colony instinct” — geared to the s ur vival of the colony r ather than the individual and yet it is a “part of the geneticcode” of each individual — as the result of evolution, when evolution teaches the S URVI VAL OF T HE FI T T ES T : i.e., each individual seeks FIRST for its own survival?
We repeat: ” a gr adually evolving ins tinct” is impos s ible, for
the first bees that ever lived had to know as much as their modern descendants about cell construction, wax making, bee glue, royal jelly, the secrets of feeding, the way to predetermine sex, nectar gathering and honey making — otherwise the entire colony would have per is hed befor e evolution had a chance to get it s tar ted! T o believe that the abilities, characteristics, physical make-up, specialized “organs” (such as the stinger, the antennae cleaner, and the pollen basket) and instincts came about through gradual development is utterly impossible to the logical, open mind. Such a theor y can be r eceived only by thos e who have been br ainwas hed into blind adherence to a dogma, believing because “others (with ‘authority’ or ‘scientific standing’) believe it.” I F there ever was a time when the colony instincts of bees were only partially
developed, ther e never could have been bee s war ms that s ur vived! BEES FROM THE VERY BEGINNING HAD TO BE AS THEY ARE NOW,
or there would be no bees today.
No wonder that Charles Darwin, in one of his books, found in the common honeybee a pr oblem that baffled him ” mor e than any other he encountered.”
“It looks as though God Almighty,” says H. Gracey (in, Evolution and the Honeybee) “in this little insect (the bee) prepared a tr ap to catch and baffle the ables t men that ever tr ied to s uppor t the evolutionar y theor y. I n the honeybee we have a highly endowed little cr eatur e with ins tincts that s eem to r ival r eas oning powers more closely than the instincts of any other creature — and yet there is no door left open for the entrance or the transmission of these wonderful peculiarities. T he parents of the bee (the queen and the drone) have none of these instincts to transmit; and the honeybee itself (which has no offspring) can transmit nothing. Mr. Darwins theory of transmission is closed at both ends. We must admit: THIS IS THE HAND OF GOD.”